DEGANYAH

DEGANYAH (Heb. דְּגַנְיָה), two kevuzot – Deganyah Alef and Deganyah Bet – in Israel, on the Jordan-Yarmuk Plain south of Lake Kinneret, both affiliated to Ihud ha-Kibbutzim. Deganyah Alef was founded in 1909 on land that was among the first holdings acquired by the jewish national fund . The initiative came from seven pioneers of the Second Aliyah who were working as wage earners at the neighboring farm of kinneret and who applied to arthur ruppin to farm a plot of land on their own responsibility. Ruppin decided to accord them a trial period on a part of the lands east of the Jordan named Umm Jūnī. Surprisingly, the experiment succeeded economically, although the group dispersed after a year. It was followed in 1911 by the "Haderah Commune" whose members (pioneers from Russia) worked out the principles of collective settlement (see kibbutz movement ) and made Deganyah the "Mother of the Kevuzot." A.D. Gordon , one of the early members, played an important part in laying the ideological foundations of communal living. In the initial years, the kevuzah suffered from frequent attacks by Bedouin robbers encamped in the vicinity. After World War I, with the arrival of Third Aliyah immigrants, Deganyah's intensified farming created a need for more hands, but preferring to maintain the frame of the small "family" kevuzah, the settlers ceded part of the land allocated to them for the establishment of another kevuzah, which was built in 1920 and named Deganyah Bet. In time, the two settlements further intensified farming and recognized the need, both economic and social, to absorb more members, although they were able to give a part of their landfor a third settlement, the kibbutz afikim . During the war of independence (1948), the Syrian army, having taken neighboring Ẓemah, attempted to continue its advance across the Jordan westward; but on May 20, 1948, it was repulsed by the vigorous defense of Deganyah Alef. One of the Syrian tanks remained stuck in the settlement's perimeter; it remained there as a memorial. In memory of its fallen members, Deganyah laid out Gan ha-Meginnim (The Defenders' Park). In 1968 the two Deganyahs had a combined population of 960, in 2002 around 1,000, equally divided between the two. Both operated intensive, fully irrigated farming (avocado, bananas, date palms, dairy cattle, and poultry) based on the hot climate and abundance of water in the region. Deganyah Alef has operated the Toolgal industrial diamond plant since the early 1970s, while Deganyah Bet operates a guesthouse. The Bet Gordon Museum and Study Center for natural sciences and agriculture is located at Deganyah Alef. levi eshkol and kadish luz were members of Deganyah Bet. arthur ruppin , otto warburg , leopold greenberg , and other personalities are buried at Deganyah Alef, alongside A.D. Gordon, joseph busel , and other founders of the labor settlement movement. In 1981 Deganyah Alef was awarded the Israel Prize for special contribution to Israeli State and society. The name "Deganyah" (Cornflower) is based on the Arab designation of the land, Umm Jūnī, which in turn may have its origin in the village Kefar Gun of talmudic times. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Baratz, Village by the Jordan (1954). WEBSITE: www.degania.org.il . (Efraim Orni / Shaked Gilboa (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • BUSEL, JOSEPH — (1891–1919), Zionist Socialist pioneer; one of the originators of the idea of the kevuẓah (see kibbutz movement ) and among its founders in Ereẓ Israel. Busel was born in Lachowicze, Minsk Region (Belorussia). Before he went to Ereẓ Irael in 1908 …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • DAYAN — DAYAN, family in Ereẓ Israel. SHEMUEL (1891–1968), pioneer of cooperative settlement in Ereẓ Israel. Dayan was born in Zhashkov, Ukraine, and joined the Zionist movement as a youth, settling in Ereẓ Israel in 1908. There he worked as a laborer in …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ALIYAH AND ABSORPTION — GENERAL SURVEY Introduction Aliyah, ascension or going up, is the coming of Jews as individuals or in groups, from exile or diaspora to live in the Land of Israel. Those who go up for this purpose are known as olim – a term used in the Bible for… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • KINGSLEY (originally Kirschner), SIDNEY — (1906–1995), U.S. playwright. His first success was Men in White (produced by the Group Theater in 1933), a play with a background of hospital life which won a Pulitzer Prize in 1934, and was made into a motion picture. A meticulous researcher,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • WAR OF INDEPENDENCE — (Heb. מִלְחֶמֶת הָעַצְמָאוּת Milḥemet ha Aẓma ut, or מִלְחֶמֶת הַקּוֹמְמִיּוֹּת Milḥemet ha Komemiyyut, or מִלְחֶמֶת הַשִּׁחְרוּר Milḥemet ha Shiḥrur (the War of Liberation), war waged by the Jews of Palestine for survival, freedom, and political …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • BARATZ, JOSEPH — (1890–1968), Zionist labor leader; a founder of the collective settlement movement in Ereẓ Israel. Baratz was born in Kamenets, Ukraine. In Ereẓ Israel, where he settled in 1906, he worked as a laborer. In 1910, he became one of the founders of… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • HISTORICAL SURVEY: THE STATE AND ITS ANTECEDENTS (1880–2006) — Introduction It took the new Jewish nation about 70 years to emerge as the State of Israel. The immediate stimulus that initiated the modern return to Zion was the disappointment, in the last quarter of the 19th century, of the expectation that… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • POPULATION — THE JEWISH POPULATION Growth by Aliyah In 1882 the Jewish population of Ereẓ Israel numbered some 24,000, roughly 5% of the total, and about 0.3% of the world Jewish population. Since then there has been an almost continuous flow of aliyah, which …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ECONOMIC AFFAIRS — THE PRE MANDATE (LATE OTTOMAN) PERIOD Geography and Borders In September 1923 a new political entity was formally recognized by the international community. Palestine, or Ereẓ Israel as Jews have continued to refer to it for 2,000 years,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • KIBBUTZ MOVEMENT — The kibbutz, or kevuẓah (plural: kibbutzim, kevuẓot) is a voluntary collective community, mainly agricultural, in which there is no private wealth and which is responsible for all the needs of the members and their families. The kibbutz movement… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.